AMA - Ask a Biology Teacher About Science

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Posts in total: 47
--> @Goldtop
First for the evolution of the vertebrate eye, check this article out, and I'm not sure if it still does have an animation, but if it does, it's super simple and explanatory. Good read too.


Yeah the eye is just a photo-receptor sitting in a cup.
When the first organisms had photo-receptor cells they were merely absorbing light and exiting chemical reactions within the organism, but with vertebrates, the photo-receptor cells sit in an eye cup.
The first eye cup was a neural plate that over time became more indented and deeper, requiring the evolution of those photo-receptor cells.
You can look at fish and see what our eyes once were, but that's just the vertebrate eye.
The eye before vertebrates was much different than our eyes today, but similar in that they have the same photo receptor cells.
--> @MagicAintReal
What, if anything, do you teach about ID?

--> @MagicAintReal

.."Some jellyfish such as the Aurelia have specialized structures called rhophalia. The rhophalia have receptors for light called ocelli, balance called statocysts, chemical detection called olfaction and touch called sensory lappets.

...When the animal's body is tilted the statocyst makes contact with the cilium causing it to bend which allows action potentials to fire in the nerve. Through all of this the information provided it allows muscles to move.

Box jellies have 24 eyes

see cubo{6}-octa{8}hedrons  --truncated box--- 24 edges/chords, 24 radii, 24 internal equalteral triangles

{6} surface squares divided into 24 symmetrical triangles

{8} surface triangle divided into 234 symmetrical triangles
--> @keithprosser
What, if anything, do you teach about ID?
What's there to teach?
god did it, done, good luck on the exams kids.




--> @MagicAintReal
Is Maryland typical in this regard?  it seems the creationist threat is overblown!
--> @keithprosser
Well, there's certainly not a creationist threat with respects to curriculum in MD, but I know that MD follows NY in just about everything educational.
In my experience there is no real threat, because there's no real science to threaten our actual science.
--> @MagicAintReal
Yeah that's what my uncle said too when we talked about it... the money aspect. But don't college professors make a decent amount? In any case, he said Republicans say it's the people that tried and failed.. lol. I don't believe that. I believe anyone willing to teach is kinda progressively minded. They push forward knowing you can always learn and grow. But then again, many types of teachers would probably be all about keeping things as they are like math teachers. I don't know. 

I'm glad your centrist/moderate... it don't understand how more aren't... actually, i think the majority of people are, but unfortunately the loudest and most passionate are the fringes. I imagine centrist are just like whatever... as i would think most of the population is. It's funny, bc most laws that pass are centrist laws since both sides have to agree... it just takes forever to get to them bc of their idiocy. 

Anyways, sorry i don't have any biology questions... i avoided the sciences like the plague when i was younger and stupid. I'm interested now, but more so in physics i guess. I think i've asked you if you believe in multi-verse hypothesis and you said no, but i like what science is doing there bc i think if there is anything spiritual at all... understanding that will get us closer. Biology wise... i don't even know what to ask. Why does every human have unique fingerprints and/or is it possible for there to be the same fingerprints? Lol... i guess that has to do with bio. 

--> @Outplayz
Yeah, I agree that most people are centrist, but the money is in the divided parties, so they are the loudest and most powerful...I really would like more parties in America.

"I think i've asked you if you believe in multi-verse hypothesis and you said no, but i like what science is doing there bc i think if there is anything spiritual at all..."
Actually, I don't particularly like the multiverse theory, but it is a necessary result of quantum fluctuations, and so it is one of the scientific theories that I reluctantly accept because the quantum fluctuation principles indicate it and the evidence suggests that a multiverse is very likely.

"Why does every human have unique fingerprints and/or is it possible for there to be the same fingerprints? Lol... i guess that has to do with bio."
It has to do with bio, because fingerprints are an incompletely dominant trait, and incompletely dominant traits are different than both of the homozygous parents' traits.
Because of this, no child of homozygous fingerprint parents have the same fingerprints as either of their parents, and not even twins have the same fingerprints, because small differences in the womb environment conspire to give each twin different, but similar, fingerprints. In fact, each finger has a slightly different pattern, even for your own fingers.

No two fingerprints have EVER been found to be identical.
It's because the trait is incompletely dominant and so much goes on in the beginning weeks of fetal development with respects to the fingerprints.


--> @MagicAintReal
Actually, I don't particularly like the multiverse theory, but it is a necessary result of quantum fluctuations, and so it is one of the scientific theories that I reluctantly accept because the quantum fluctuation principles indicate it and the evidence suggests that a multiverse is very likely.
How confident are you that the universe hasn't always existed and has just been expanding infinitely? Basically, there was no big bang and everything has just been expanding and moving infinitely? 

Which type of multi-verse would you say is most likely? I personally like the multi-verse versions where there are an infinite and/or endless and/or undetermined amount. I also like to think that not all universes have the same laws. What do you think of those two points?

If there are multiple universes that are endless as i describe above... isn't it almost certain there is a Boltzmann Brain (conscious universe)? 

No two fingerprints have EVER been found to be identical.
I work in law and defendants usually like to make the argument someone else has their fingerprint. We have to always explain it's quite impossible... but, it could happen as i'm aware just very unlikely. 

Do you the same can be said for the human brain? That's why we are all slightly different bc no two brains form the same? Or, is the mind a little more tricky? Bc i guess there are people that have similar personalities... I just wonder if any two people can have the same exact personality. 
--> @Outplayz
"How confident are you that the universe hasn't always existed and has just been expanding infinitely? Basically, there was no big bang and everything has just been expanding and moving infinitely?"
I'm very confident that the spacetime of this universe did not always exist, because you can take the inverse of the Hubble constant back to zero; the math allows for zero spacetime.
So our universe's spacetime originated at the big bang and the early universe's energy density confirms it.


Which type of multi-verse would you say is most likely? I personally like the multi-verse versions where there are an infinite and/or endless and/or undetermined amount. I also like to think that not all universes have the same laws. What do you think of those two points?
From quantum fluctuations, universes come, so I don't see why it couldn't be infinite, and I don't see why any of those universes would have the same laws of physics...to me the laws themselves are arbitrary, it's all about how the universe forms from quantum fluctuations.


"If there are multiple universes that are endless as i describe above... isn't it almost certain there is a Boltzmann Brain (conscious universe)?"
No, if it's truly endless then there's a universe that destroys all conscious universe's and ours is destroyed.


"Do you the same can be said for the human brain? That's why we are all slightly different bc no two brains form the same? Or, is the mind a little more tricky? Bc i guess there are people that have similar personalities... I just wonder if any two people can have the same exact personality. 
I think it can be said for all of our DNA, therefore all of our cells, therefore all of our tissues, therefore all of our organs.
Also, external forces change our brain structurally and functionally so by that alone no two brains are the same because no two brains experience the same exact stimulus throughout time. 
--> @MagicAintReal

......."By virtue of the fact that there are tentacles among the two main taxons of bilaterally symmetrical animals, it is logical to assume that the common ancestor also had them. It means that the common ancestor of chordate animals including people also had tentacles," -- Elena Temereva explains."....


.."Some jellyfish such as the Aurelia have specialized structures called rhophalia. The rhophalia have receptors for light called ocelli, balance called statocysts, chemical detection called olfaction and touch called sensory lappets.

...When the animal's body is tilted the statocyst makes contact with the cilium causing it to bend which allows action potentials to fire in the nerve. Through all of this the information provided it allows muscles to move."....

When is a torus bilateral?  When some cross section area of the torus tube inverts, in a similar way the spherical fertilized egg inverts, to create three germ layers one of which is the spinal chord with 31 left and 31 right spinal nerves  in humans and some other animals, we have a similar situation.

Albeit I'm not aware of any such inverting torus phenomena with biologicals or elsewhere.

Box jellies have 24 eyes

see cubo{6}-octa{8}hedrons  --truncated box/cube--- 24 edges/chords, 24 radii, 24 internal equalteral triangles

{6} surface squares divides into 24 symmetrical triangles

{8} surface triangle divides into into 24 symmetrical triangles

--> @MagicAintReal
From quantum fluctuations, universes come, so I don't see why it couldn't be infinite, and I don't see why any of those universes would have the same laws of physics...to me the laws themselves are arbitrary, it's all about how the universe forms from quantum fluctuations.
That's interesting. To me, this means the chances of some kind of other intelligence existing out there would be high. This doesn't necessarily mean a "god" type intelligence although it can, but i think the chances of specific intelligences to their universe is quite high. The question is always if these intelligence can communicate / interact with our world. I would think the only way that could be possible is through energy. Since if they fully manifest into our reality then they would also manifest into our realities laws. That's why i find it even more curious that all supernatural phenomena is in the form of energy... even most alien sightings are some type of energy. 

How much stock do you put in the possibility of aliens? And/or the possibility of other sentient / intelligent life?  

No, if it's truly endless then there's a universe that destroys all conscious universe's and ours is destroyed.
That's precisely why i don't think any two universes are the same in regards to laws. I think it's the same as fingerprints where they all form a little different. And since their laws are different they cannot interact with our universe. There is a wall per se where our universe meets another. Of course this is all just speculation, but i think it makes sense this way or else you're right... one universe would eventually swallow up the others unless it can't. Since we're here that's probably the case... or, maybe there is one swallowing universes infinitely away from us. In that case, it will never get to us anyways. 

What do you think of infinite? Do you think it's more on the lines of just not having any boundaries? Infinite would make more sense than finite right? 

I think it can be said for all of our DNA, therefore all of our cells, therefore all of our tissues, therefore all of our organs
Would you say evolution is proven? And if so, how well do you think it's proven ... Overwhelmingly? Could it also be possible humans evolved out of more than one animal? I always had a crazy thought humans evolved out of all or most animals that's why certain humans look like certain animals. 
--> @Outplayz
"To me, this means the chances of some kind of other intelligence existing out there would be high. This doesn't necessarily mean a "god" type intelligence although it can, but i think the chances of specific intelligences to their universe is quite high"
Yeah given the sheer odds of it all, I don't see why another intelligence is impossible.


" The question is always if these intelligence can communicate / interact with our world. I would think the only way that could be possible is through energy."
See I would think it would be done through some form of electromagnetic radiation, energy all the same.


"That's why i find it even more curious that all supernatural phenomena is in the form of energy"
What's supernatural phenomena?


"What do you think of infinite? Do you think it's more on the lines of just not having any boundaries? Infinite would make more sense than finite right?"
I would say our universe shows sign of expanding infinitely, but it most certainly had a beginning.


"Would you say evolution is proven? And if so, how well do you think it's proven ... Overwhelmingly"
There is more concrete, tangible evidence that evolution is a fact than there is for the earth going around the sun...it is proven overwhelmingly.


"Could it also be possible humans evolved out of more than one animal?"
Well yeah, I mean humans have reptilian brains and mammalian reproduction and birth.
--> @MagicAintReal
See I would think it would be done through some form of electromagnetic radiation, energy all the same.
That's interesting i didn't think of it that way. It is the same nevertheless, energy. I wonder if there is some sort of interacting, one day we have a way of detecting it. I think that would open up a can of worms in regards to questions. I'm sorta a fictional realist (that's why i like multi-verse hypos). I think everything we have thought of could be possible in some "possible world." Kinda like modal realism too. It's just a fun idea that would be cool if it's true. I always tell friends that are into fiction too that alien sightings are super powered entities in other realities. Super hero/villains with the power to hop bw worlds. That's why it's always in the form of energy. They can pop into our world but can't fully manifest since they will manifest into our realities laws too. They just come by and check things out or who knows... somehow interact. It blows their minds lol. A lot of people wish those things could be true, evidently... seeing how popular super hero movies are.

I'm the most annoying for an atheist to argue. Apart from also being agnostic atheist i also think Santa could actually be real. lol. 

What's supernatural phenomena?
I guess that isn't the best way to describe it by saying "supernatural." I would say phenomena we currently wouldn't have an answer for. That very likely could be natural so i acknowledge that. But, i am almost positive there is phenomena that we don't have answers for... which is obvious. But i go as far as this phenomena having intelligence and/or intelligently interacting with this world. I'm bias in this regard since events of the spiritual nature have happened to me. And more than just once. Spiritual would be defined the same way btw... phenomena that we don't have an answer for but with the addition of intelligence also being a part of it. 

I would say our universe shows sign of expanding infinitely, but it most certainly had a beginning.
I think you were the one that taught me about how space-time had a beginning if we are defining it as "our" space-time. At least i think i researched it bc of one of your debates. I do believe it had a beginning too, but i most definitely don't believe there has ever been literally "no" space-time. I think that is something that has always existed. Of course an opinion. 

Well yeah, I mean humans have reptilian brains and mammalian reproduction and birth.
Yeah, i've always found that interesting that we have reptilian brains. It's the amygdala area right? I learned about it in rehab. Bc people that are addicted to hard drugs shut down their frontal cortex and only function on the reptilian part of their brains. That's why they're compulsive and make bad decisions. Furthermore, i was told that if you started doing drugs when you were 16 heavily until like 28 or something... your frontal cortex stays shut down and doesn't mature until you stop the drugs. So once someone stops at 28... they're brain is only as mature as a 16 year old. That scared the crap out of me. Thankfully, i only had this problem for a little more than a year. I hate anything that has a negative effect on my intellect.   


 

--> @Outplayz
" I think everything we have thought of could be possible in some "possible world." Kinda like modal realism too. It's just a fun idea that would be cool if it's true"
It sounds like the MGB argument, but yeah, maybe because the sheer odds of universes the possibility is there...who knows?

"I'm the most annoying for an atheist to argue. Apart from also being agnostic atheist i also think Santa could actually be real. lol."
Hahah, I'm an agnostic atheist as well, and I think there's a better case for santa's existence than god's.


"I would say phenomena we currently wouldn't have an answer for. That very likely could be natural so i acknowledge that. But, i am almost positive there is phenomena that we don't have answers for... which is obvious. But i go as far as this phenomena having intelligence and/or intelligently interacting with this world."
Yeah, if we had answers to everything, I'd be out of a job...science lives on explaining things.
So, you sound sort of Greek, in that when they didn't have an explanation for something, they assumed intelligence. Rather than charged particles, an intelligence, Zeus, was throwing lightning bolts.

"I'm bias in this regard since events of the spiritual nature have happened to me. And more than just once. Spiritual would be defined the same way btw... phenomena that we don't have an answer for but with the addition of intelligence also being a part of it. "
Was it Zeus?

"but i most definitely don't believe there has ever been literally "no" space-time."
Well, for our universe, there was a time when there was zero spacetime, we've confirmed it with the CMB, the energy density of the early universe, and the inverse of the hubble constant. Was there other spacetime in other universes? Maybe.

"Yeah, i've always found that interesting that we have reptilian brains. It's the amygdala area right?"
Any like instinctual, primal reaction to like fear and environment sensing would be our back brain, down to the stem. All mammals have the reptilian back brain.
Old brain from reptile, back...new brain from evolving as a mammal the front.
Look at dolphins and beluga whales with that gigantic evolved frontal lobe...they too have the reptilian back brain.

The things you mention about drugs are serious, and the implications are real, given this current heroin epidemic.
Thanks for the questions.
It sounds like the MGB argument, but yeah, maybe because the sheer odds of universes the possibility is there...who knows?
The MGB argument uses modal logic, but that's about all. I'm against any type of one entity platform, well in a way. The only one entity platform i believe could be possible is a source for consciousness. But this source wouldn't be an entity, it would just be a source. More of an "it" rather than a "who" ... it's a pantheistic platform. All other one god type platforms i find to be illogical. But as you say, who knows. But modal logic is simply a watered down fictional realist platform. If we can say "in some possible world santa exists" it's possible that in some possible world santa exists. Fictional realism is the all in version of that. I think with possible world nothing that currently exists goes into it... fictional realism doesn't have that limit. 

Hahah, I'm an agnostic atheist as well, and I think there's a better case for santa's existence than god's.
I most definitely agree. When people ask then what is the "atheism" in when i say it, is directly referring to the gods we have. I believe none of the one god or many god platforms in religion have it right. Now i'm agnostic if its just deism or just gods without humans defining them. So i guess it's more an anti-religion type of atheism. 

So, you sound sort of Greek, in that when they didn't have an explanation for something, they assumed intelligence. Rather than charged particles, an intelligence, Zeus, was throwing lightning bolts.
One thing many of the atheist here don't understand about me is that i'm really a hard skeptic. It's really hard for me to say something seems like what it is without thinking about everything i can. I've done the same with my experiences. Most of them are easily explained by confirmation bias and the like. But, i have four specific experiences that were very profound and can't easily be explained. I throw in intelligence bc that is something that i observed was needed for the experience to happen. Simple energy fields, from what we know, can't answer questions or demands. Two of my experiences happened with commands / demands. So, that is why i say intelligence seemed to be a part of it. Now, there's of course a chance of randomness seeming to go on command, so i knowledge that too... but it wasn't on its face. 

Was it Zeus?
Lol, could be. But this is where i'm different than most people that have experiences... probably bc i am a skeptic.... i have no clue what it is. I can think of some platforms that could answer it, and rule out platforms that just make no sense like god, but ultimately i have no clue. When i say i'm believe in spirituality, i actually mean i suspect a couple platforms might be logical. If i had to say an entity... i would say myself in higher self form. Bc one of the platforms that would make more sense is a higher self doing these things... bc why would anyone else be following me around in this life? It makes more sense that i'm following myself around as a transcendent form. But who knows... i acknowledge that's just a best guess. 

Well, for our universe, there was a time when there was zero spacetime, we've confirmed it with the CMB, the energy density of the early universe, and the inverse of the hubble constant. Was there other spacetime in other universes? Maybe.
Can you explain this to me? How do we know for certain there was "no" space time?

The things you mention about drugs are serious, and the implications are real, given this current heroin epidemic.
Yes it is, but it's better to call it a "doctor epidemic" bc it's doctor's that are the drug dealers and/or killers. When people say "gateway" drug... they basically mean vicodin or the like prescribed by doctors. It's only after the person has gotten addicted to that they start seeking heroin and other street drugs. It's sad the pharmaceutical companies don't care about life bc they can easily fix this problem. That's what makes me more mad, is how easy it is to fix but stupid reporters sitting there and yelling epidemic without reporting on the truths.


--> @Outplayz
"Can you explain this to me? How do we know for certain there was "no" space time?"
So the universe's spacetime currently is expanding at a fixed rate, the Hubble constant.
By taking the inverse of this rate, we can trace spactime back in time and in size.
If it were a correct rate, the CMB radiation wold indicate that by it's scattering, and it does, so we can take this rate back to zero spacetime.
Also, the predictions of the energy density of the first bit of space, confirmed by the measured density of the early light elements with an anisotropy probe, show that from zero space, space with energy density comes.


--> @MagicAintReal
So the universe's spacetime currently is expanding at a fixed rate, the Hubble constant.
By taking the inverse of this rate, we can trace spactime back in time and in size.
If it were a correct rate, the CMB radiation wold indicate that by it's scattering, and it does, so we can take this rate back to zero spacetime.
Also, the predictions of the energy density of the first bit of space, confirmed by the measured density of the early light elements with an anisotropy probe, show that from zero space, space with energy density comes.
Okay maybe asking you to explain was a bad move since i didn't understand most of that lol. I only think of it in layman terms and since i am ignorant to the science i have to go with logic and/or observation. Observing what space and time are... they very well "seem" to have always existed. Bc the alternative would be that there was nothing. And if there is nothing and something just pops into existence, well that's very tricky to say the least. So i don't understand how science can confidently say there was no spacetime at any point. Our space-time, which contains energy, the CMB radiation, and everything else... i can see how that came into existence. But to me it seems like those things came into existence into spacetime. Not that they created spacetime. But of course this will get us speculating about before the big bang and i know that's a problem. I've heard this no spacetime thing before, and without understanding the technicalities as you've explained, i know i'm speaking from ignorance, however, i think the little logic i use gives me good reason to at least doubt that there was at any point literal no spacetime. I do understand the "our" spacetime version. But like i said, it seems like our universe came into existence within a preexisting spacetime... would you say my logic is far off? 
--> @Outplayz
" And if there is nothing and something just pops into existence, well that's very tricky to say the least. So i don't understand how science can confidently say there was no spacetime at any point."
Alright, that was a little heavy in vocab, my bad, let me try again.

So, we know that there was once zero spacetime, because we have a fixed speed at which space expands now.

You can use this fixed speed, called the Hubble constant, to predict how much the distance between the galaxies will increase over time.
I can use the Hubble constant to say predict the distance between the galaxies in 20 years.
That means that the expansion of the universe is directly increasing with time passing.
It makes sense to call it spacetime because more expanded space, more passed time.

Taking the Hubble constant, the expansion speed of space, the other way would show the rate at which space contracts AND taking this number back leads us to about 13.7 bya.

When you follow the numbers back, they not only allow for zero spacetime, but the radiation form the big bang, the big bang literally being zero spacetime-->some spacetime, indicates the energy density of space was once zero and then not.

So let me get to the meat of the explanation.

What you have to understand is that the fabric of empty space in our universe is composed of quantum fluctuations.
These quantum particles exist as they are annihilated by particle-antiparticle pairing.
The result is nothing remains.
Also, unlike all other particles we deal with, these particles are fundamental to space and do not distort it, so while you may think that space is somehow fundamental, that's not the case.
Quantum fluctuations are the literal fabric of empty space in our universe, it is the particles that are fundamental, not space.

Now you have to get to when spacetime was zero.
The quantum particles still fluctuated at zero spacetime, it's just that spacetime, gravity, radiation, and the quantum particles all fluctuated together.
As a quantum particle existed and was annihilated, so with it was spacetime.
The result is that none of those things remain.

They exist and are annihilated at their existence, so there was no remaining or expanding spacetime when there were no remaining particles.
This quantum fluctuation is unstable, so eventually a particle could avoid annihilation, allowing for the first bit of remaining space and this first bit of remaining space was completely filled with a particle, so the energy density of this first bit of unexpanded space was extremely high and we've confirmed its measurement with the measurements of radiation in the universe.
--> @MagicAintReal
Hey, I was a biology teacher in Maryland as well for about 30 years, looks like we have something in common. I don't know if I know as much about the universe as you seem to know, but what are the odds?
--> @Bifolkal
"Hey, I was a biology teacher in Maryland as well for about 30 years, looks like we have something in common. I don't know if I know as much about the universe as you seem to know, but what are the odds?"
No shit!
I'll PM you about the school district and such, but 30 years?
What are you crazy?
Glad to see more science people here on DART.
Yeah if you wanna ask anything about the universe, this is a great place to start.


--> @Outplayz
And if there is nothing and something just pops into existence, well that's very tricky to say the least.
"Tricky"? How about nonexistent scenario except as metaphysical-1, mind/intellect/concept i.e. impossible scenario.

Occupied space
exists eternally this is a minimal brainer and first understood in late 1800's ergo the 1st law of thermodynamics was discovered --- 'energy{ occupied space } cannot be created nor destroyed' ergo eternally existent

(><)(><) = occupied space as positive (  )  geodesic gravity (  ) and  negative )(  geodesic dark energy )(  and our observed { quantised } reality.


>< and >< = inversions from peak of gravitational  (  ) curvature and peak of negative dark energy )( curvature and they inversely define a sine-wave of observed reality{ fermions and bosons } ex /\/\/\/ or as ^v^v

there is some evidence of a new third catagory that is a hybrid{?} of fermion and boson.

In the following pattern we see observed { quantised } reality ---0, 3, 6, 9, 12--  is resultant of an inversely created sine-wave pattern --0, 3, 6, 9, 12---

....1...............5...v...7......................11...v...13.....peak of positive curvature...and all all prime numbers except 2 and 3


0........................6.................................12..........one-half of observed sine-wave of reality..............................................
...........3.............................9................................one-half of observed..sine-wave of reality..........................................


......2...^....4..................8....^.....10........................peak fo negative curvature..................................................................

Observed { quantised } reality { energy } is triangulated ergo structurally and systemically stabilized integral.

This above pattern can be translated as a torus. (  )(  ) = vertical bisection/cross-section of a torus.

( (   ) ) = horizontal bisection/cross-section of a torus i.e.birds-eye-view.