Actually, economists have developed many reliable methods of measuring labor shortages. You can read about some of them here
Oh neat, I didn't realize they managed to pin it down as well as they could.
I guess now the only argument that could be made is that there wouldn't be much harm in keeping a slight surplus of the number of immigrants needed to curtail labor shortages rather then keep it at a bare minimum, but that argument doesn't work out well either since historically speaking there have more often then not been economic developments resulting in a large number of unemployed people rather than a large number of unfilled vacancies.
Well, yes... that would constitute a labor shortage. Geography is among the most common reasons why labor shortages exist. As I said, I have no issue with immigrants taking jobs that Americans legitimately can't/won't take.
This part was building off the assumption that the geographical qualities of the US might throw off the accuracy of calculating labor shortages and labor needs based on criteria not factored into the original calculation of how much of a labor shortage there is in the first place
most of them conclude that immigration without assimilation is terrible for social stability. Check some of them out here
, and here
Those first two links have like 40 pages worth of info that I don't really have the time to go through. If you can pinpoint where in those links the studies address social stability for immigration, that would be helpful.
that doesn't make it any less crucial to maximize the assimilation of first-generation immigrants
Thats true in theory but the reality is that you're not going to be able to achieve 100% assimilation with first generation immigrants, especially if you want to tie immigration to something as large as labor shortages while also considering the pool of people that immigrants usually come from. Even if the first generation of immigrants assimilate rather poorly to US society, later generations achieve far greater success by being more exposed to the language and culture of the US from an early age, making the long term effects of poor initial assimilation for the most part negated.
All of those factors would definitely be taken into consideration when determining cultural compatibility, especially the "speaking English" one
I personally don't mind the 'speak English' aspect, since the language barrier is the biggest barrier to success in economic freedom and educational achievement for new immigrants. My issue though is the inclusion of the other factors people would want to screen against such as religious belief, which goes against what the country stands for since the country was literally founded by people seeing to practice religious freedom. Other factors outside of ability to speak English that could be used to bar immigration could also be needlessly arbitrary, such as an immigrants age, health, family size, or job history.....
if you want to measure an immigrants ability to assimilate into a country, knowledge of how the government works and ability to speak English is fine with me, but also as far as I would go. Anything beyond that for the most part is arbitrary and should not be enforced just because we want to cull down the numbers.