Since Evolution is God's process, it's real
Fossil layers are fossils that formed in sedimentary rock. Sedimentary rock is rock that is formed in layers by the depositing and pressing of sediments on top of each other. Sediments are any loose material that gets broken away and carried: pieces of rocks, pebbles, sand, clay, silt, boulders, dead organisms, animals, plants, shells, insects . . . . When sediments move and settle somewhere, they are being deposited. When, over a long time, layers and layers of sediments get deposited on top of each other, the weight of the top layers presses down on the bottom layers, forming them into rock called sedimentary rock. The oldest layers are on the bottom, and the youngest layers are on the top. Because sediments sometimes include once-living organisms, sedimentary rock often contains a lot of fossils. Fossils are once-living organisms that have been turned into rock, in which the shape or form of the organism can still be seen.
Once thing that Darwin noticed on his travels, and that people continue to notice today, is that fossils in the bottom layers are very different from the organisms alive today; Darwin didn't even recognize them. As one looks farther up, at younger and younger rock layers, the fossilized plants and animals become more and more familiar until they are a lot like organisms that are around now. The organisms also tend to become more and more complex.
From this, Darwin concluded that organisms have not remained the same since earth's beginning, and that they have changed a lot, gradually becoming more and more complex. He also realized that as new species arise, other ones become extinct.
People look at fossils to discover which life forms evolved first and which later on. Today scientists also have ways of dating the rocks, figuring out about how long ago each layer was deposited. This also helps us piece together the time scale of evolution and when certain events occurred.One type of evidence for evolution (evidence that organisms are related, descended from a few common ancestors, and change to adapt to their environments) is that organisms are similar to each other, but not exactly the same. Similar organisms have differences that help them adapt to their environments.Many organisms have similar body plans. Horses', donkeys', and zebras' bodies are set up in pretty much the same way, because they are descended from a common ancestor. As organisms adapt and evolve, not everything about them changes. The differences, such as the zebra's stripes, show that each species adapted to its own environment after branching off from the common ancestor.The bodies of deer, moose, zebras, and horses are very similar, and these animals are very closely related. One major difference is that deer and moose have antlers and zebras and horses don't. Why is this? Deer and moose live alone or in small groups, while zebras and horses live in large herds. Living in a herd provides its own protection from enemies: it is easier to attack an individual than a huge herd. Therefore, herd-living animals do not need the antlers that their loner relatives need for protection. In addition, running or grazing with large antlers is hard to do in a herd, where it is easy to accidentally stab one's neighbor.All insects have heads, abdomens, and thoraxes, antennae, six legs, and wings. However, each species is different, and while all insects have wings, some have small, useless wings, because their environments did not force them to evolve useful wings, or because their wings became harmful to survival.All birds have feathers, beaks, and wings, but are different because they had to adapt to different environments, such as the webbed feet of water birds but not of land birds. On a more distant level, fish and zebras both have eyes, frogs and baboons both have spines. Generally, the longer ago the last common ancestor lived, the less the organisms have in common. Turtles and tortoises share a common ancestor, but began evolving separately a long time ago. The common ancestor of box and painted turtles lived more recently, so the box turtle has more in common with the painted turtle than it does with the tortoise. How similar two organisms are can help people figure out how closely they are related.The study of one type of evidence of evolution is called embryology, the study of embryos. An embryo is an unborn (or unhatched) animal or human young in its earliest phases. Embryos of many different kinds of animals: mammals, birds, reptiles, fish, etc. look very similar and it is often difficult to tell them apart. Many traits of one type of animal appear in the embryo of another type of animal. For example, fish embryos and human embryos both have gill slits. In fish they develop into gills, but in humans they disappear before birth.This shows that the animals are similar and that they develop similarly, implying that they are related, have common ancestors and that they started out the same, gradually evolving different traits, but that the basic plan for a creature's beginning remains the same.