mRNA vs Variants of CoV2

Author: ebuc ,

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  • ebuc
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    Part-1;

    ...."mRNA vaccines use lab-created mRNA encapsulated within nanoparticles. mRNA vaccines deliver mRNA directly to the cytoplasm. 

    ....Once the mRNA is in the cytoplasm ribosomes translate it, which results in the creation of a protein antigen that triggers an immune response (Schlake, 2012). The mRNA does not enter the nucleus, and therefore cannot be incorporated into the genome.

    ....Its presence in the cell is transient, and it is quickly metabolized and eliminated via cellular processing mechanisms (Mulligan, 2020). mRNA vaccines do not utilize any element of an organism. Unlike conventional vaccines, which can take months to produce, mRNA vaccines can be created quickly and are more easily scaled because they use an organism’s genetic code."....   

  • FLRW
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    --> @ebuc

    Yes,  if the South African strain becomes an issue in the fall, a booster would be ready to distribute by then.



  • ebuc
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    Part 2:

    ...."Immunization with either the Pfizer-BioNtech or Moderna vaccine significantly increased memory B cells and CD4+ T cell responses to both the vaccine-matched Wuhan-Hu-1 strain and the mismatched B.1.351 variant. { south africa }

    ......Moreover, both vaccines induced an approximately 1000-fold increase in neutralizing antibody titers against both strains.

    ....The researchers say the findings suggested that the observed increase in neutralizing antibody responses post-vaccination was primarily due to an increase in anti-RBD antibodies.".......


  • FLRW
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    --> @ebuc
    You do know that they are talking about people that previously had the virus, don't you?
    "Now, researchers from the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle and CHUM Research Center in Montréal have shown that just a single dose of either the Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna vaccine generated a 1000-fold increase in neutralizing antibody titers against both the vaccine-matched Wuhan-Hu-1 strain and the B.1.351 variant among CONVALESCENT individuals."
    They are saying if you had the virus or vacine then one new dose will give you protection from both varients.

    “Boosting pre-existing antibody responses to the spike protein will lead to significant increases in serum neutralizing antibody responses against vaccine-matched and emerging variants,” concludes the team.

    Note the term PRE-EXISTING.

    This was the basis on my comment about getting a booster shot.
  • ebuc
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    Part 3:

    ...Pfizer Vice President and Chief Scientific Officer of Viral Vaccines Dr. Philip Dormitzer spoke at OSU’s inaugural INTERACT Eminent Speaker Series.
    During his speech, he said the Pfizer vaccine protects against the variants from the U.K., South Africa and Brazil. However, clinical data is needed to be sure, Kit Longley, Senior Manager of Science Media Relations for Pfizer, later told KFOR."....

    ....."On the other hand, it could be a constantly changing virus like the flu that requires repeated immunizations.

    .....“If I were to guess, I would think it is more likely to not be quite like the flu,” Dormitzer said. “Coronaviruses are different. They have a much lower rate of change. I am surprised by how much change we have seen. I wonder how much is really being driven by immunity and how much is being driven by this virus still adapting to growth in humans. The key is we are going to be prepared for whatever it is we have to do.”
  • ebuc
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    Part 4:

    ..."Current vaccines were designed around earlier versions of coronavirus, but scientists believe they should still work, although perhaps not quite as well.

    A recent study suggests the Brazilian variant may be resisting antibodies in people who should have some immunity because they have caught and recovered from an earlier version of coronavirus.

    Early lab results, however, suggest the Pfizer vaccine can protect against the new variants, although slightly less effectively.

    Two new coronavirus vaccines that could be approved soon - one from Novavax and another from Janssen - appear to offer some protection too.
    Data from the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine team suggests it protects just as well against the new UK variant. It offers less protection against the South Africa variant - although it should still protect against severe illness.

    Early results from Moderna suggest its vaccine is effective against the South Africa variant, although the immune response may not be as strong or long-lasting."......

    It appears to me, that, the current mRNA vaccines appear to be winning the battle with known variants.

  • FLRW
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    Feb. 25, 2021
    As concerns grow that new coronavirus variants could blunt the protective effects of vaccines, Pfizer and BioNTech said on Thursday that they planned to test a third booster shot as well as update their original vaccine.
    Laboratory experiments have found that the levels of antibodies neutralized by the Pfizer-BioNTech shot was reduced against a variant first identified in South Africa, which could hint at reduced efficacyBut there is no evidence yet from clinical trials there suggesting that the vaccine does not offer strong protection.
    “We are taking multiple steps to act decisively and be ready in case a strain becomes resistant to the protection afforded by the vaccine,” Dr. Albert Bourla, the chief executive of Pfizer, said in a statement.
    One study will look at what kind of protection is given when people receive a third shot about six to 12 months after the initial two-dose regimen. In addition, the companies said they were speaking to regulators about testing an adapted version of the vaccine that would protect against the variant from South Africa, known as B.1.351.

  • ebuc
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    Part 5:


    ..."mRNA has a linear structure having uracil base instead of thymine, and its secondary structure could be hairpin, stem-loop, etc. ;

    ..while tRNA has Cloverleaf structure that carries three specific stem-loops; and

    ...rRNA has much complex structure with numerous folds and loops."....

  • ebuc
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    Part 5a :


    .."mRNA is single stranded, linear, and it is prevented from binding to itself so that ribosomes can attach and translate proteins from it.
    tRNA is complex, many of the nucleotides on tRNA are post-transcriptionally modified"....

    and subsequently

    ...."The easiest way to remember is, is “string” (mRNA), “cloverleaf/L” (tRNA), “ball-of-wool” (rRNA)."..


  • ebuc
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    ..."Whereas the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine uses 30 micrograms of mRNA, Moderna’s contains 100. (The company gave an even higher dose of its vaccine in earlier clinical studies, but found it sometimes led to serious side effects.) Both vaccines require two doses separated by several weeks. A key difference is that the Pfizer/BioNTech candidate must be stored at –70°C, whereas Moderna’s can be kept at –20°C. Moderna revealed today that once thawed, its vaccine can remain stable for 30 days at 2°C to 8°C, home refrigerato r temperatures. In much of the world, maintaining a cold chain for a –70°C vaccine presents formidable challenges, and even –20°C presents obstacles."....

    I'm still attempting to find person-man at Moderna who discovered the correct pathway discover out of 1000's of poosible shapes sequences that led to this shape to inject into a cell.

    I heard him on NPRadio. Moderna then passed that discovery to Phyzier since this viral Pandemic was a one for all, and, all for one endeavor.
  • FLRW
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    March 8, 2021

    A new lab study shows troubling signs that Pfizer's and Moderna's COVID-19 shots could be far less effective against the variant first found in South Africa
    • Pfizer's and Moderna's shots were at least 10 times less effective against variant in a new study.
    • Researchers tested the vaccines on a variant first found in South Africa, which is now in 20 states.
    • A mutation on the variant called E484K appeared to be a "major contributor," the study authors said.
    Both companies said in January that they were developing booster shots specifically to tackle the B.1.351 variant.


  • ebuc
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    --> @FLRW
    Both companies said in January that they were developing booster shots specifically to tackle the B.1.351 variant.
    Looking forward to those shots.  Maybe a lot of sore arms if the shots keep coming next few years!