Systemic Racism Exists
The debate is finished. The distribution of the voting points and the winner are presented below.
After 4 votes and with 23 points ahead, the winner is...
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- Three days
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- One week
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PRO: Will argue that systemic racism against black people exists in America.
CON: Will argue against the existence of systemic racism against black people in America.
Racism: Prejudice, discrimination, or antagonism directed against a person or people on the basis of their membership of a particular racial or ethnic group, typically one that is a minority or marginalized.
Systemic racism: A form of racism that is embedded as normal practice within society or an organization. It can lead to such issues as discrimination in criminal justice, employment, housing, health care, political power, and education, among other issues.
ROUND 1: OPENING ARGUMENTS
ROUND 2: REBUTTALS
ROUND 3: DEFENSE/NO NEW ARGUMENTS/CLOSING STATEMENTS
- Black boys are seen as older and less innocent and that they prompt a less essential conception of childhood than do their White same-age peers: https://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/releases/psp-a0035663.pdf
- High proportions of adults who work or volunteer with children endorsed negative stereotypes towards Blacks and other ethnic minorities: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0201696
- Applicants with white sounding names were 50 percent more likely to get called for an interview than people black sounding names despite having similar resumes: https://ww.dartmouth.edu/~econ27/Bertrand02.pdf
- Using a police training video game, the effect of ethnicity on shoot/don't shoot decisions was examined. African American or White targets, holding guns or other objects, appeared in complex backgrounds. Participants were told to "shoot" armed targets and to "not shoot" unarmed targets. In Study 1, White participants made the correct decision to shoot an armed target more quickly if the target was African American than if he was White, but decided to "not shoot" an unarmed target more quickly if he was White. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12500813/
- Teachers are more likely to label black students as troublemakers than they are white students with the same number of infractions: https://www.psychologicalscience.org/news/eleases/teachers-more-likely-to-label-black-students-as-troublemakers.html
- Researchers reported that teachers asked to rate students’ academic abilities scored Black children far below white peers with identical scores: https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/du-bois-review-social-science-research-on-race/article/unequal-returns-to-childrens-efforts/F3F39A2BCA0CC35CA27029E725928C12
- Black students are more likely to attend schools with inexperienced or low-paid teachers. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED581117.pdf
- Black boys raised in America, even in the wealthiest families and living in some of the most well-to-do neighborhoods, still earn less in adulthood than white boys with similar backgrounds: https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2018/03/19/upshot/race-class-white-and-black-men.html?mtrref=undefined&gwh=4075444A1D97B6EB0BDB191538718DEE&gwt=pay&assetType=REGIWALL
- Blacks are only slightly more than half as likely to receive consideration by employers relative to equally qualified white applicants: https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/pager/files/race_at_work.pdf
- Black employment in the testing sector is suppressed in the absence of testing, a finding which is consistent with ex ante discrimination on the basis of drug use perceptions. https://www.nber.org/papers/w20095#fromrss
- Black borrowers are at greater risk of receiving higher-rate loans than white borrowers, even after controlling for legitimate risk factors: https://www.responsiblelending.org/mortgage-lending/research-analysis/rr011-Unfair_Lending-0506.pdf
- Black home buyers are 105 and 78 percent more likely to have high cost mortgages for home purchases even after controlling for credit score and other key risk factors: https://ww.nber.org/papers/w22004
- Compared to white people, black people are less likely to receive preventive health services and often receive lower-quality care: https://www.commonwealthfund.org/publications/newsletter-article/2018/sep/focus-reducing-racial-disparities-health-care-confronting
- A substantial number of white laypeople and medical students and residents hold false beliefs about biological differences between blacks and whites and demonstrates that these beliefs predict racial bias in pain perception and treatment recommendation accuracy: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4843483/
- White defendants are twenty-five percent more likely than black defendants to have their principal initial charge dropped or reduced to a lesser crime. White defendants with no prior convictions receive charge reductions more often than black defendants with no prior convictions: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3036726
- Black offenders get longer sentences than white for similar history and crimes. https://www.ussc.gov/research/research-reports/demographic-differences-sentencing
- Black people are more likely to got to jail for drugs despite similar rates of usage. http://www.justicepolicy.org/uploads/justicepolicy/documents/vortex.pdf
- Black Americans are disproportionately affected by police shootings. https://www.forbes.com/sites/niallmccarthy/2020/05/28/police-shootings-black-americans-disproportionately-affected-infographic/#24e8b51459f7