The Significance of Systemic Racism in the US
By its definition, systemic racism does not belong to any particular individual -- rather, it is the combination of efforts of people on a societal level. The marginalization of persons on their race has grown to a pervasive and intrinsic level to society -- which fulfills the idea of “systemic”.  Some confuse the ideas of systemic -- relating to the system -- with systematic -- acting according to plan or methodical. However, this semantic differentiation is not only counterproductive to society, it also ignores the fact that people make up the system of society as a whole. There doesn’t need to be any explicit laws that allow for systemic racism. The actions of the individuals and the ignorance of the government combine to the now infamous systemic racism in the United States. In other words, individuals are what make up the system.
A powerful analysis of multiple studies covers the overall problems with economics and incarceration with racial inequality.
This in-depth research looks deeply into the "State-level indicators of structural racism included four domains: (1) political participation; (2) employment and job status; (3) educational attainment; and (4) judicial treatment". Drawing from social models, Alicia argues that Blacks are suffering in terms of law-related problems. The experts vouch for action, to conclude "Results indicated that Blacks living in states with high levels of structural racism were generally more likely to report past-year myocardial infarction. " 
I cannot stress how powerful and trustworthy this study is. They gather countless other researchers' information from the past, culminating in undeniable proof that people view blacks and minorities with contempt, looking over the entire past half-century for patterns and ensuring the truth of the evidence. The sheer amount of citations that the experts combine goes to highlight Con's lack of comprehensive knowledge. Merely taking some excerpts, it's clear that this study is astounding:
Blacks face significant disadvantages in educational attainment, income, wealth, credit, employment, and incarceration (CDC, 2011; Jones, 2000; Kaufman, Cooper, & McGee, 1997; Pager & Shepherd, 2008; Uggen & Manza, 2002; Williams & Collins, 1995).
After obtaining data from the US Census Bureau and carefully crunching numbers, the definitive correlation and causation are found within people' inherent beliefs and ideas, as well as the system itself: "Negative interactions for state elected officials, employment, and incarceration indicated that the effect of these measures of structural racism on myocardial infarction among Blacks differed significantly from that of Whites. "
The idea of health problems caused by systemic racism is not found within this study alone. Another researcher adds upon my evidence, noting "This article reviews several ways of conceptualizing structural racism, with a focus on social segregation, immigration policy, and intergenerational effects. Studies of disparities should more seriously consider the multiple dimensions of structural racism as fundamental causes of health disparities." 
The empirical evidence stacks on and on.
Racism begins at a young age in school, which inherently causes this to continue in their life. This point links to incarceration due to the similarity between suspension/expulsion and putting someone in jail. The government is unwilling to fix the problems existing within school systems, extending forth the systemic racism.
- The racism is so significant that minorities feel distressed and mental issues regarding the problem. "Elevated levels of Cultural Mistrust, Cultural Race-Related Stress, and Individual Race Related Stress lead to increased use of Emotion-Based Coping behaviors ...." 
- The above point is supported by Scientific Magazine: "Universities are not level playing fields where all students have an equal opportunity to participate and succeed. The misuse of standardized tests such as the GRE excludes students who could have otherwise succeeded (4). Once admitted, Black, Indigenous, and people of color (BIPOC) face challenges when transitioning to college life (5) and are more likely to be nontraditional students."  Thus, even the tests naturally discriminate against minorities.
- Another study regarding schooling proves that assumptions exist earlier on, which further enhances my incarceration point. People will assume things of blacks -- that they are more responsible, older, and maybe inherently related to Crime. From the American Psychology Association, "Our research found that black boys can be seen as responsible for their actions at an age when white boys still benefit from the assumption that children are essentially innocent" . The negative interactions with black children caused the unconscious dehumanization of blacks. And since the assumptions start from such a young age, this continues well into adulthood, establishing the baseline that racism doesn't just come out of nowhere.
- Blacks are also suspended at a disproportional rate , noting that from federal data "for every 100 students with special needs in 2015-16, white students lost 43 days to suspension, while black students lost 121 days". The huge difference between the two races proves that the problem is systemic and significant. Indeed, a GAO report proves that the representation of suspended blacks was severe in percentage difference.
- "School to Prison" is a known term, where the schools cause the minority students to become ostracized. The extremely harsh punishments push them to become neglected and build upon their vulnerability, raising this point to the next level.  As a result of this educational racism, a very high proportion of minorities are also dropping out of school.  How does Con explain this, if this is not due to the problems I've listed?
- Another research article furthers on how Brown V Board was not enough to dismantle our systemic Racism. "[Schools] remain effectively segregated due to the following: discrimination in schools by administrators, teachers, and students; racial bias in the school curriculum; the separation of students into different ability tracks reflecting racial, class, and gender stratification; and the use of standardized testing that contains significant racial and class bias."  The law wasn't effectively enforced, proving that our system has failed.
The publication first counters Con by showing that even the founding fathers had intended for the oppression of minorities: "[Those] who drafted the U.S. Constitution..built into the country’s foundation certain mechanisms designed to maintain the enslavement of African Americans to unjustly enrich many white Americans..".
Indeed, the article further lists that many cases show our unfair discrimination and inability to fulfill the ideals of equality. "Cases which have come to this Court depict a spectacle of slavery unwilling to die. . . . Negroes have been excluded over and again from juries . . . . They have been made to attend segregated and inferior schools . . . . They have been forced to live in segregated residential districts . . . ." The problems and accusations go on.
There is also expounding upon how white men tend to abuse their power within the education system. As a collective whole, merely a handful of individual racism could not have caused this problem. The corruption of bias influences the use of power, which stems from systemic racism. "The failure of school desegregation lies primarily in the hands of those with the greatest political, economic, and civic power, who have long been mostly white. White elites—including school board members, leaders of civic and business organizations, state and local legislators, and judges in state and federal courts—have made decisions that have reversed progress toward substantial school desegregation since the 1970s."
Unfortunately, despite the momentary successes of Brown, our society remains unchanged with the practices of segregation. It's first highlighted that President Dwight Eisenhower faced pressure from white teachers and school leaders, making it impossible to make further progress. The history displays precisely this: "Oklahoma v. Dowell and freeman v. Pitts decisions indicated that the Supreme Court would permit large-scale resegregation of schools. The Freeman decision gave lower court judges much discretion to abandon supervision of desegregation before a school district was in full compliance.46 Today, as Orfieldand Eaton notes, “[d]esegregation remedies can even be removed when achievement gaps between the races have widened, or even if a district has never fully implemented an effective desegregation plan.” You can see how deep the racism goes, going beyond mere persons and now into the most trusted authorities in the US.
Crucial resources are denied for black students, which inherently destroys ideals for equality and halts potential progress for the future.
If the power of desegregation wasn't obvious, my source further explains the education denied for blacks. Firstly they say, "One major study found that “black third-graders in predominantly white schools read better than initially similar blacks who have attended predominantly black schools.” Secondly, they support this by saying yet another study with 1,800 students found both white and black students performed better with desegregation. Why wouldn't they? After all, with greater equality, you have harmony, unity, team spirit, acceptance, all key for success. In contrast to the world I show where most black kids have trouble in their academics, the ideal world displays the great difference that we could have been making.
Next, in contrast to my education dropped and expulsion rates in usual schools, the research thirdly adds, "Black students from desegregated, substantially white schools typically are more successful in entering into the high-paying job and college networks than those students from traditionally segregated schools. Going to a substantially desegregated high school significantly increases the chance that a black or Latino student will attend college". Of course, common knowledge tells us that going to universities greatly helps you in your future career. I won't bother sourcing that. Instead, I will further that the states refuse to compromise, despite being a crucial component of the system, and a smaller sub-system in itself.
The expert continues: "...the state not only tolerates the funding gulf between Milwaukee and its suburban counterparts, but it has also instituted policies that allow the gap to widen". The result is vastly reduced access to critical job networks that all people deserve to have. Also, the segregation arbitrarily prevents resource access as a result. "Research indicates that other critical resources, such as the availability of small classes and college placement courses, are not equitably distributed."
I will spare you the summary of the rest of the report. The discrimination within the school and its impacts are continuously analyzed for at least a dozen pages. Needless to say that systemic racism has a very significant impact on education.
IV. Health Care:
Health Care inequality has caused countless deaths and inequality within the treatment. Our government has continued ignoring these problems and extended systemic racism.
Even if we account for socioeconomic equality, this alone cannot attribute to all the deaths and sicknesses gone untreated.
I have countless expert sources to support this.
- More Health, existing even in Artificial Intelligence: "The U.S. health care system uses commercial algorithms to guide health decisions. Obermeyer et al. find evidence of racial bias in one widely used algorithm, such that Black patients assigned the same level of risk by the algorithm are sicker than White patients".  Scientific Magazine also stacks upon an agreement: "Algorithms designed to make decisions about health care incorporate biases that limit care for Black patients." 
- The government has FAILED to implement the existing equalities and rights. This is backed by credible sources and the idea that the private sector does whatever it wants due to a lack of laws and regulations. "Racial disparities in health outcomes exist at alarming rates and can be seen in the prevalence of chronic health conditions...and police brutality. Furthermore, unequal access to quality health care disproportionately burdens communities of color and exacerbates racial disparities.
- “The COVID-19 pandemic has unveiled these inequities and made it impossible to ignore structural racism. Comprehensive research on the public health impacts of structural racism is needed to confront and dismantle the racist systems and practices that create racial disparities and to develop race-conscious public health approaches to reverse the existing disparities that have plagued our nation for too long. This point has been underscored by the federal government’s failure to adequately collect race and ethnicity data on COVID-19 testing, hospitalization, and deaths." 
- This is not only supported by the collection of data but the real-world news. Yet another study highlighted " During the entire course of the pandemic so far, data compiled by the non‐profit APM Research Lab (2020) has shown that the crude death rate for Black Americans is more than double that for all other racialized groups. When adjusted for age, the risk of death from COVID‐19 is as much as nine times higher for African Americans than it is for whites (Bassett, Chen, & Krieger, 2020)." 
- The large political, social, and economic forces combined are the sole explanation for the blacks, and con has no way to deny this. The expert explains that there is an undeniable correlation. The social forces shape up the toxic environment for the blacks to be unable to access health services. The synergy between the biology and the sociological processes combine to ruin the minorities. My researcher further explains, "already we see evidence of racial inequities in COVID‐19 treatment (Eligon & Burch, 2020), and we know that discrimination in healthcare settings adversely affects the management of chronic conditions like diabetes (Peek, Wagner, Tang, Baker, & Chin, 2011)."
- Another expert's experiment proves that blacks even received better treatment under those who were more racially accepting than those who were not. Under current circumstances, the gap between white and black mortality is unacceptable -- even my research highlights that the gap could be reduced by up to 19% if we tackled systemic inequality. 
The effects of Systemic Racism are so terrible, that the MIT president
himself admits and sends an urgent letter remarking the problems existing in the system, and speaks out for action against such. He even admitted that surface-level change was not enough: "...we need to acknowledge that it has not been effective enough
...as the student members of the Academic Council Working Group recently emphasized
, important work remains unfinished. What’s more, while MIT’s decentralized structure has allowed for great advances on inclusion in some units and departments, it has served to hamper Institute-wide progress
. "  To discredit such a well-respected person of high status is, discarding the scholarly opinion that makes up the essence of society and truth.
There is a famous term called the healthcare system, which extends similarly to racism's system. This is the umbrella term that includes all the private sectors combined with government action. According to encyclopedia.com, health care is "the method by which healthcare is financed, organized, and delivered to a population. It includes issues of access (for whom and to which services), expenditures, and resources (healthcare workers and facilities). "  My idea of government failure is supported by its ideals. "All governments have some degree of involvement in healthcare because essentially all countries have a centrally funded agency that is concerned with public health
issues". Therefore each institute combined forms the entire system, making the MIT President's point valid in the context of systemic Racism.
Blacks are being contained at a severely inappropriate and alarming rate. There is no explanation for this besides the systemic inequality in the system.
One scholarly article goes well into depth about this problem. It opens up with a strong statistic. "while making up only approximately 12% of the U.S. population, African Americans constitute 49% of its inmates."  George Bush admitted there was a problem with police making judgments about blacks.
"Vice President Al Gore promised that if elected, his first act as President would be to issue an executive order banning racial profiling. 21 Then Governor George W. Bush responded that he did not want to "federalize" the local police, but he did agree that something needed to be done about racial profiling." This is then supported by other studies and ideals. "In the late 1980s and early 1990s, Dr. John Lamberth of Temple University conducted a study to record the proportion of African-American drivers and ... Thirty-five percent of the cars pulled over had a black driver or passenger, while only thirteen percent of cars on the highway contained either a Black passenger or driver."
The author then provides extra context, adding on the war on drugs as an additional problem. "the federal sentencing guidelines and a growing minority of state sentencing guidelines dispense more severe punishments for use of crack cocaine, a drug used predominantly by African Americans, than for powder cocaine, a drug used predominantly by White Americans." The disproportional rate of guilty to the arrest is appalling. The author highlights: "African Americans constitute approximately 13% of the U.S. population and 13% of its drug users; however, African Americans constitute 35% of drug arrests, 55% of drug convictions, and 74% of drug imprisonments."
After this, the author notes how the amendments do not protect minorities, followed by the very supreme court cases that Pro has vouched for so much. There is an impossible way to enforce Equal Protection, displaying that the judicial branch didn't help reduce systemic racism. "Even in the United States v. Clary,153 … the district court focused on the theoretical nature of the provision instead of its actual results by attempting to prove that its purpose was subconsciously discriminatory.155… Senior Circuit Judge John R. Gibson asserted that the theory of protection against "unconscious racism" is untenable because "the Equal Protection Clause is violated 'only if that impact can be traced to a discriminatory purpose."
Silton further follows through with the nail in the coffin, noting how the Supreme Court's interpretations precisely destroyed the Constitutional amendments themselves. "The Supreme Court made it possible for a racist officer to justify pulling over only African Americans by showing that he had the modicum of reasonableness necessary for probable cause 248 or, in cases of a Terry search, mere "articulable suspicion."
There are also inherent problems within the police themselves, causing inequality and enforcing the racial profiling stereotype that we have in the US. In yet another study, it's noted that "Through an analysis of 27 local news media articles on the topic of street checks, it is argued that the Police Services and local media discourse enact gaslighting, a form of psychological abuse that is used to manipulate an object(s) to deceive and undermine the credibility of the target. The psychological effects of gaslighting on people of color included a sense of alienation, disenfranchisement from the community, and distrust toward the police. Through a case study application, it is suggested that gaslighting is part of a systemic, historical process of racism that has been used by the police and government organizations to both illegal target people of color and deny complicity in racial profiling." The impact of the police's bias is very clear and has caused the public to also believe that serving as part of the system, the police are part of the systemic racism.
David Williams is a famous researcher who proved my precise point here. The inherent problems of racism on multiple levels have caused countless deaths and jailing in terms of crimes
. Socioeconomic inequality alone cannot explain this statistic [10
]. The combination of structural, cultural, and individual racism makes up the undeniability of Systemic racism.
VI. Current evidence
Current trends highlight that the systemic racism is an unstoppable force. Business Insider displays 26 different charts, ranging from employment, income, wage gap, sentenced prisoners, etc. All which add up to the overall societal racism in the US.  If this wasn’t enough, a PhD author also has 100 additional statistics in a 2020 article that prove our system doesn’t treat blacks fairly.  Blacks lose trust in government and police due to the tension and fear. Vox notes that they are not only disproportionate economically, they also cannot even feel safe.  It’s as if we were oppressing them just like Hitler oppressed the Jews.
Even if Con would try to destroy my evidence based on the fact that most of them are not from 2020 (therefore not "currently a significant problem"), I still have sources that support the problems lying in equity and justice within the US, proving the Systemic Racism. One editorial published in 2020 further solidifies my present-tense problem. [16
The article notes that the vast majority of blacks experience at least one form of racism. Nearly 80% of blacks reported experiencing discrimination, resulting in isolation and alienation. They also feel less supported and committed, perhaps even having an "emotional tax in the workplace". The research further proves the economic inequality, showing that the wealth gap is significantly related to segregation. The "adverse intersectionality is expected to occur due to (1) a compounding of overrepresentation in lower-paying ... and (2) underrepresentation in highest growth geographies". The association of minorities with bad-paying jobs leads to an endless cycle where blacks are forced into poverty due to racial biases.
The expert furthers that racial injustice even causes psychological distress. The most famous example, George Floyd, caused massive riots calling out the message "black lives matter". There are repeats of the same problems I keep listing: health care, wages and wealth, policing and criminal justice, education, etc. It doesn't matter if we consider exactly 2020 or two years ago; both cases have significant evidence to support my position.
Similarly, other laws like redlining continue in the present. Blacks still have problem obtaining loans to buy housing. The grandchildren of those who suffered under the racist policy results in a compounded disparity. Whites were able to buy houses and grow rich, while blacks lost those opportunities.  The discrimination within the mortgages and lack of wealth kept the communities separated by race.
VII. Occupational Racism
Systemic racism exists clearly throughout careers for minorities as well. In a Journal of Occupational Science, the expert echoes my previous research, first listing all the instances that further prove my argument: " Voting laws (Jones & Williams, 2018
), educational systems (Kozol, 1991
), housing policies (Gonda, 2015
; Rothstein, 2017
), judicial and penal systems (Cole, 1999
), healthcare systems (Hoberman, 2012
), labor markets (Bertrand & Mullainathan, 2004
), deep social prejudices (Greenwald et al., 2009
), and countless other everyday instances of racism (Kendi, 2019
) systematically oppress people of color." If this wasn't enough, he also goes on to analyze the problems within jobs. Because having a job counters homelessness and poverty, this is still related to the economic factors listed above.
The expert explains the "systemic" level of racism. In our society, we have a hierarchal relation of people to their skin color. The categorization had been used far in the past to justify the dehumanization and slavery of blacks. After the talks of the entire history of slavery and Jim Crow laws, he leads into our modern-day setting. He explains that "racism was still present in the expectations of this occupation. Black drivers were not permitted to pass White drivers and could face violence from police or vigilantes if they did so (Berrey, 2015
)." He also lists examples of blacks gaining more rights and fighting against expectations especially with avenging the police brutality, proving that the problem existed.
He then notes that the unemployment of blacks, caused once more by racist employers [24
], was the true cause of the crimes: "US residents often assume higher crime rates are directly correlated with higher numbers of residents of color, but there is no such correlation; in fact, unemployment is a much more accurate predictor of crime
)". In other words, we
are giving a big reason for the crimes to occur. We are the problem. If we resolved our biases and hired people regardless of color, we would inherently prevent crimes. The system has a feedback loop that lets our racial bias feedback into inherent reasons for blacks to fulfill our expectations. A vicious, inescapable cycle, unless we change our mind.
Pre-Rebuttal: Legal Laws Against Blacks
Despite all my evidence, Con will likely remain ignorant and try to point out I haven't pointed out any laws that inherently defeat Blacks' rights and liberties. Yet my very first source demonstrates that our basis was racist and wrong, forcing us to work towards change. As the research lists, our foundation had racist laws, to begin with. "US legal and political institutions have a long history of establishing racist laws and policies that actively segregated and subordinated
racial groups on many levels (Davis and Graham 1995
; Feagin 2006
; Lopez 2006
; Bell 2008
). The US Constitution and early and later US Supreme Court cases
operated to create and sanction a slave society
and then a Jim Crow society that denied rights, opportunities, and citizenship to people of African, Asian, and Latin American descent. As critical race legal theorists demonstrate (Bell 2005
), recent conservative political policies and legal rulings
continue to legally or informally uphold segregated realities for whites and racial minorities." 
At last, all my arguments finally come together. You can see the big picture now. The Supreme Court contradicted itself and was unwilling to listen to the people. Despite Brown V Board of Education, all of that was just a front, and education remains unconsciously biased towards blacks. Combined with the inability to access healthcare and difficulty in jobs, we find that blacks suffer a difficult life. And the result is either poverty or jail for the vast majority of circumstances.
And if Voters doubt that I have fulfilled the definition of systemic racism, I will bring one last source that combines it all together. Systemic is not just about explicit laws that say "you can practice racism." As Nejm.org realizes, "All definitions make clear that racism is not simply the result of private prejudices held by individuals
but is also produced and reproduced by laws, rules, and practices
, sanctioned and even implemented by various levels of government, and embedded in the economic system as well as in cultural and societal norms.
Call to Action
Understandably, Con and many others feel the way they do. Some are simply not knowledgeable enough and only know about one side of the debate. But learning history and the truth paves a path towards greater understanding. As yet another study highlights, educating history lets us learn about how and why systemic racism exists today. The researchers stated, " Participants listened to a control clip or historian Richard Rothstein discuss the federal government’s role in creating Black ghettos, and how racialized space still perpetuates structural inequality today (cf. Bonam, et al 2015)",  and as a result, they were able to further the battle against Systemic racism today, changing people's point of view for the better.
My voters, friends, the time to act against systemic racism is here and now. Already, six corporations have donated millions to billions of dollars to fight the inherent bias within people.  Police and judges have not self-reflected or educated themselves enough, and the evidence I have provided is as resounding as any scientific theory, such as evolution or the age of the earth. To deny the existence of systemic racism is to deny the very effort to fight for equality, and potentially return to a world where white males dominated and minorities are snuffed out like a candle. It is true that the Supreme Court, with 12 incredibly strict judges, has established a baseline. But it takes more than 12 to change the world and to demonstrate the lack of systemic racism.