US foreign policy in the lead up to 9/11 was highly objectionable
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Welcome to this debate Con, and thank you for accepting.
Anglo-Iraqi treaty of 1922 and 1930.
I am going to begin at the beginning, and just as objectionable is the foreign policy of Great Britain, allies of the United States of America, and it was during a dispute between Maggie Thatcher and Saddam Hussein that the USA first decided to get involved with a war that they should not have gotten involved in.
Although Great Britain are not going to be part of this debate, the issues concerning US foreign policy in the lead up to 9/11 do begin with an alliance with Great Britain. So I now want to investigate the objectionability of Britains foreign policy, to find out if the US were correct to ally themselves with Maggie Thatcher.
It all begins in 1922 when after world war 1 Great britain sign an agreement with Iraq whereby Iraq get their own independent government in return for Britain keeping certain concessions. If it was USA that done this deal, it would have been called dollar diplomacy.
The Anglo-Iraqi Treaty of October 1922 was an agreement signed by the government of Great Britain and the government of Iraq. The treaty was designed to allow for local self-government while giving the British control of foreign and military affairs. It was intended to conclude an agreement made at the Cairo Conference of 1921 to establish a Hashemite Kingdom in Iraq.
Anglo-Iraqi treaty of 1930
However, in 1927 oil was first found in Iraqi waters, and it was legally owned by Iraq, as this oil concession had not been included in the 1922 treaty. So, what did Britain do? Britain tore up the 1922 treaty and insisted that a new treaty should be signed which would include the oil amongst the concessions. Now I want my opponent to tell me it is ok for Britain to do this!
The Anglo-Iraqi Treaty of 1930 was a treaty of alliance between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the British-Mandate-controlled administration of the Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq. The treaty was between the governments of George V of the United Kingdom and Faisal I of Iraq. High Commissioner Francis Humphrys signed for the United Kingdom and Prime Minister Nuri as-Said signed for Iraq. The 1930 treaty was based upon an earlier Anglo-Iraqi Treaty of 1922 but took into account Iraq's increased importance to British interests given new oil finds made in 1927.
Saddam Hussein took back the oil
It was in 1972 that the USA first supported Kurdish rebels to rise up and overthrow Saddam Hussein, but why? Was it because of his friendship with the USSR?
In 1972, Saddam signed a 15-year Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation with the Soviet Union. According to historian Charles R. H. Tripp, the treaty upset "the U.S.-sponsored security system established as part of the Cold War in the Middle East. It appeared that any enemy of the Baghdad regime was a potential ally of the United States." In response, the U.S. covertly financed Kurdish rebels led by Mustafa Barzani during the Second Iraqi–Kurdish War; the Kurds were defeated in 1975, leading to the forcible relocation of hundreds of thousands of Kurdish civilians.
Saddam broke the Anglo-Iraqi treaty of 1930
Was it just coincidence that this happened right after Saddam Hussein seized the oil and broke the Anglo-Iraqi treaty of 1930?
At the center of this strategy was Iraq's oil. On 1 June 1972, Saddam oversaw the seizure of international oil interests, which, at the time, dominated the country's oil sector. A year later, world oil prices rose dramatically as a result of the 1973 energy crisis, and skyrocketing revenues enabled Saddam to expand his agenda.
It must also be pointed out, that whilst the US were plotting Saddam Husseins assassination, Saddam was using the oil revenue to turn Iraq in to a modern first world country and earned a UNESCO award from the United nations for doing so.
s vice chairman, he oversaw the nationalization of the oil industry and advocated a national infrastructure campaign that built roads, schools and hospitals. The once illiterate Saddam, ordered a mandatory literacy program. Those who did not participate risked three years in jail, but hundreds of thousands learned to read. Iraq, at this time, created one of the best public-health systems in the Middle East -- a feat that earned Saddam an award from the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.
Now when Saddam Hussein first invaded Kuwait in a bid to get Saudi Arabia and Kuwait to waive the loans they lent him to finance his war with Iran, the US were not necessarily going to get involved, and it is claimed that it was Maggie Thatcher that twisted their arm.
U.S. President George H. W. Bush responded cautiously for the first several days. On one hand, Kuwait, prior to this point, had been a virulent enemy of Israel and was the Persian Gulf monarchy that had the most friendly relations with the Soviets. On the other hand, Washington foreign policymakers, along with Middle East experts, military critics, and firms heavily invested in the region, were extremely concerned with stability in this region. The invasion immediately triggered fears that the world's price of oil, and therefore control of the world economy, was at stake. Britain profited heavily from billions of dollars of Kuwaiti investments and bank deposits. Bush was perhaps swayed while meeting with British prime minister Margaret Thatcher, who happened to be in the U.S. at the time.
1951 mutual defence act
So in the end, the USA end up supporting their 1951 Mutual defence agreement with Saudi Arabia, which is highly objectionable given that the Saudis have inherited a reputation of being the biggest terrorists on the planet.
The Mutual Defense Assistance Act was a United States Act of Congress signed by President Harry S. Truman on 6 October 1949. For US Foreign policy, it was the first U.S. military foreign aid legislation of the Cold War era, and initially to Europe. The Act followed Truman's signing of the Economic Cooperation Act (the Marshall Plan), on April 3, 1948, which provided non-military, economic reconstruction and development aid to Europe.
Osama Bin Laden offered to fight Saddam Hussein instead of the USA
The USA did not need to get involved however, as Osama Bin Laden whose Al qaeda had just defeated the USSR offered to go to war with Saddam Hussein in Kuwait.
Yet instead of telling the Saudis to just use Osama Bin Laden, they instead decided to go to war with Al-Qaeda also, due to the fact that Osama Bin Laden was now threatening to tear up Saudi Arabia over the refusal.
The Iraqi invasion of Kuwait under Saddam Hussein on August 2, 1990, put the Saudi kingdom and the royal family at risk. With Iraqi forces on the Saudi border, Saddam's appeal to pan-Arabism was potentially inciting internal dissent. Bin Laden met with King Fahd, and Saudi Defense Minister Sultan, telling them not to depend on non-Muslim assistance from the United States and others and offering to help defend Saudi Arabia with his Arab legion. Bin Laden's offer was rebuffed, and the Saudi monarchy invited the deployment of U.S. forces in Saudi territory. Bin Laden publicly denounced Saudi dependence on the U.S. military, arguing the two holiest shrines of Islam, Mecca and Medina, the cities in which the Islamic prophet Muhammad received and recited Allah's message, should only be defended by Muslims. Bin Laden's criticism of the Saudi monarchy led them to try to silence him.
War against Al qeada began there and then
The war against Al qaeda began there and then, and arrests of Al qaeda personnel began.
Meanwhile, on November 8, 1990, the FBI raided the New Jersey home of El Sayyid Nosair, an associate of al-Qaeda operative Ali Mohamed. They discovered copious evidence of terrorist plots, including plans to blow up New York City skyscrapers. This marked the earliest discovery of al-Qaeda terrorist plans outside of Muslim countries.
USA began chasing Osama Bin Laden all over Africa
Now the worst thing about this, is that neither the US nor Osama Bin Laden are even African, but Osama Bin Laden saw fit to run to Sudan, and the US saw fit to wage war against him on African soil.
However everything that happened could have been avoided. Everything that happened after 9/11 could have been avoided had quite simply 9/11 not happened, and 9/11 would not have happened if it were not for the oil, and dollar diplomacy, because the U.S, would not have went to war with Saddam Hussein, and nor would they have went to war with Al-Qaeda, had it not been for the oil interests, and that is why the U.S. foreign policy is highly objectionable.
Good luck to my opponent.
My opponent has unfortunately forfeited the first round.
In the event my opponent has forfeited this round also, I have no rebuttals to make and shall extend once more.