I don't want to project, but I feel like liberals would be likely to fight for those specific majors I mentioned because conservatives are near non-existent in those majors, while they are very present in business and economics majors.
I'm not sure that is accurate.
I'm not sure that the concern of politicization would be too bad if you go by purely objective measures of income or job placement rates. I am sure that the parties may fight over where to draw the line based on the student-types that support their party. But I wouldn't support the party in power cherry-picking majors. The market decides what is important at the time based on wages and job creation pretty well, so the aforementioned measures would work pretty well in my opinion,
I still think they would be very easy to mess with. The government could just choose how they want to interpret the information or just add exemptions because they feel like it. It seems like a system that would not function well.
I'm not sure how much better it is to let people choose any random major. It would probably just be better to steer them towards what we know to be useful with incentives. Technology does change pretty frequently, but the majors required to complete these tasks don't seem to change too much (I am in a business school, so not entirely certain). The same basic programming knowledge is needed as far as I can tell, there just might be some slight tweaks for specialization.
oh god no. I took programming in high school about 15 years ago. Literally everything i learned is entirely obsolete. In alot of tech jobs, if you have been out of school for more than 5 years, than a decent chunk of your knowledge is obsolete. If the schools can only train people for things that already have a proven job market, then it will always be years behind the trends and struggling to catch up.