I assume my opponent had the general concept of the second definition in mind when creating this debate, in that we would be comparing the overall quality of the two groups. This is also the sense of the word that I will mainly be considering from my side. However, the term "good" does also carry the connotation of moral excellence as the first of the two definitions makes clear. I would say that a person's moral character should be considered in analyzing their overall quality, so I will also include that within my arguments.
To summarize, utilizing an extreme overuse of commas, as CON in this debate, I will be arguing that black people, as a group, are overall inferior to white people according to PRO's framework and definitions.
America is Forcing Inferiority on Black People
This debate is not about the causes of inferiority. As the resolution states, it is about whether black people are inferior. That implies a current state of being. As we all know, America has racism built into it's very foundations. The very systems and institutions were created in such a way that would benefit white people to the detriment of other races. Think of it this way - if you are about to race someone but you shoot them in the knee, you will likely win. You are ensuring that your opponent becomes far less capable than you at racing. Even 10 years down the road, the effects of shooting your opponent's knee will continue to cause them to be an inferior racer.
This is how America works.
While there are a few exceptions, it can be said in general of black people as a whole that they are set up for failure so that white people can succeed. And the exceptions are not evidence that racism does not exist, because what is considered an exceptional outcome for black people is considered normal for white people.
Black people are forced into poor communities with lower-quality educational opportunities. This leads to them having inferior skills in key learning areas such as math, reading, and critical thinking. "The net result of this pattern is that we have a de facto racially segregated K-12 school system that is more segregated today than it was forty years ago. And, this racial segregation is a strongly implicated in the low educational outcomes for African American, Latina/o and Native American students," states one article about disparate educational outcomes due to systemic racism.[2
] The disparities in education between races creates a permanent disadvantage for black people that will affect the rest of their lives. If someone has inferior math skills, they will not be as good at making important financial decisions. Inferior reading skills will impair one's ability for future understanding and can negatively impact how equipped one is for employment. And critical thinking is important in so many disciplines that inferior skills will make things more difficult than for someone who is more developed in this area.
An article from The Brookings Institution explains the snowball effect that poor education has in producing educational disparities.[3
] School readiness, high school graduation rates, and quality of colleges attended are all areas where white people exceed compared to black people. If black people are forced through systems that do not give them the same skills preparing them for the workforce, it naturally follows that they will not be able to find jobs with salaries as high as white people. Besides the prejudiced treatment from employers based on skin color, lower qualifications and learned skills will also make them less desirable to companies compared to their more capable white counterparts.
One can see how these watershed effects produce negative outcomes for the black community. As one article points out, "For some, not finishing high school [is] the first step along a pathway...what some have called the 'school to prison pipeline.'"[4
] The school to prison pipeline means that criminal records will further harm their desirability to employers.
As I have already stated, black people are forced into poor communities which can be traced back to racist policies such as redlining. But they are also kept in these poor areas because of their unequal access to higher-paying jobs. We cannot forget that their inferior math skills also put them at a disadvantage for the financial planning required to successfully navigate the house-buying process. All this means that black people will necessarily be more poor as individuals, as well as a group overall, than white people. And when they are forced to live in the same communities with other poor black people, the cycle of poverty is exacerbated while rich white neighborhoods thrive at their expense. Whites benefit from the system, as well as their superior qualifications and learned skills acquired at the expense of black people.
Effects of Poverty
When racist policies force black people into a life of poverty, they are at far more risk of needing to resort to crime as a means of survival. Think back to the racing analogy. If the person who was shot in the knee still wants to succeed in the race, they may need to resort to cheating to have a chance. The American system essentially forces black people to commit crimes at higher rates than white people.