I would like to first thank my opponent Sum1hugme for the invitation to have this discussion on the topic of the age of the Earth and the Universe. Thanks to everyone reading and evaluating the facts brought to the table. I urge you all to look at the data anew and see if either the “Old-Earth '' or “Young-Earth '' theory is best befitted by it. As debate of an “Old-Earth'' and a “Young-Earth'' implies, this is about one area of the Darwinian and Christian worldview. However, in this debate, I wont be arguing for the existence or nonexistence of God or Jesus Christ, yet I will be using the framework (creationary) that the Earth was created, by God, in 6 days and has been around for less than about 10,000 years and my opponent will be using a different framework (evolutionary) that everything was created over a period of approximately 4.5 billion years for the Earth and 13.8 billion years total for the universe. There will be other debates to discuss the God of the Bible, Jesus, or a theistic worldview in contrast to an atheistic naturalistic worldview. We will both put forward the evidence for and against our chosen framework. Decide the winner based on whomever makes the best case for the evidence fitting their appropriate age-framework.
This opening statement is broken up into three parts. The first section, “The Flood”, is one of the most decisive lines of evidence for a young Earth so I will spend the majority expanding on its nuances. It will pertain to evidence in regards to rock sediment layers, the fossil record, polystrate fossils, formations that supposedly have taken billions of years like the grand canyon, rising mountains, or moving continents, and prove how all these phenomena are best explained within a short period of about a year through the process of the flood and the events that took place afterward. The second section, “DNA / Genetics”, will be more or less mentioned here but not in-depth. It will show the theory of genetic entropy, explore research on mutation science, and disprove the form of macro-evolution that most old age apologists espouse. Finally, the “Rebuttal” section will look at evidence that pertains to the creation and development of the Universe and life on Earth. All segments will have the aim to prove that the Biblical framework is a more likely candidate that is trusted historically, and to disprove the theory of an old Earth.
This first evidence isn’t intended to prove the Biblical flood, but demonstrate that cultures around the world have a flood story. I am backing up a worldwide flood with corroborating histories and myths. There are well over 300 flood myths. If the creation timeline is true, we can infer the ancestors of all these different people groups were indirectly told the accounts from Noah and his family all the way down to modern time. The stories were embellished by different cultures in different ways, some to an unrealistic mythic extent, but the essence is the same throughout.
For some examples, you can look to the continent of Africa, which has relatively few flood legends, African cultures preserving an oral tradition of a flood include the
and Yoruba peoples.
In North American cultures there also have flood myth including the
and Eskimo peoples.
Then the list goes on all over the world in
the Middle East,
the Ancient Near East,
It took Noah about 100-120 years to build the ark to God’s specifications. The ark’s size was about 154 meters (525 feet) long, 25.5 meters (87 feet) wide and 15 meters (52 feet) high with three decks divided into rooms. Recent studies estimate the total number of living and extinct kinds (Similar to the nomenclature of a biological family in taxonomy) [1
] of land animals and flying creatures at about 1,500. With the “worst-case” scenario approach to calculating the number of animals on the Ark, this would mean that Noah cared for approximately 7,000 animals. 7,000 animals in the space of one and a half times the length of a football field, and four stories high. That checks out. [2
The amount of water recorded checks out. In the Bible it says 'the tops of the highest mountains were overflowed by about 15 cubits (22 feet)'. The tallest mountain on the Earth is Mt. Everest, at 29,035 feet above sea level. As Andrew Seidel, an atheist attempting to debunk the flood, says here:
“That means that there had to be 813,875,076 miles³ of rain for the biblical flood. To put that in perspective, the oceans have about 321,000,000 miles³ of water. All the water on earth only adds up to about 332,500,000 miles³.
So for the biblical flood to have happened, the water on earth had to miraculously multiply by about 250%.”
Then, it looks like God does provide miracles. The Bible says that the 'fountains of the great deep' were opened and the rain fell from the heavens for forty days and forty nights. In a 2008 study, led by Steven Jacobsen a Northwestern University professor, a research team uncovered an underground reservoir of water within layers of Earth’s crust indicating the amount of water underground as an estimated three-fourths of the water on the Earth.
“If all the ringwoodite in the transition zone is as damp as the samples that Jacobsen and his team detected, that layer would hold three times as much water as all of the Earth’s oceans combined, reducing their share from 96.5% of all known water to a relatively paltry 24.8%. In other words, the ringwoodite discovery could quadruple the amount of water found on Earth. A blue planet, indeed.”
If all the facts surprisingly check out about the Biblical flood, where’s the evidence in nature? The Bible states the waters rose a hundred fifty days until all the high hills under the of the Heavens were covered and the mountains were covered. We’re told that all land-dwelling air-breathing life perished except for those on the ark. We should, therefore, expect to find billions of dead plants and animals buried in rock layers laid down by water all over the Earth? And that’s exactly what we find. Billions of fossils buried in rock layers all over the Earth.
- We find whole rock layer sequences deposited rapidly in quick succession. The walls of the Grand Canyon, from the tapeats at the bottom to the kyba limestone at the top, supposed to represent three hundred million years of slow and gradual sedimentary deposition. When the plateau was pushed up, the rock layers were bent and folded - but they were folded without fracturing. They had to be soft, if they were bent without fracturing. That means they could have only just been deposited. Therefore, the three hundred million years could never have happened. All those rock layers had to have been deposited in quick succession during the flood year.
- Sea life buried high in mountains on the continents. Marine creatures that live in the ocean are found on mountains like the Makhonjwa Mountains that were supposedly formed 3.6 billion years ago. Plate tectonics is not the answer. These formations all over the world are burials for sea creatures that are not much older than and nearly identical to the modern sea creatures we see today. There are shellfish with limestone minerals contained in them that can only come from salt water i.e. the open ocean. 
- Long transport distances of sediments. The Coconino sandstone in the Grand Canyon. The same grains are believed to have been washed and transported a great distance far north from at least Wyoming. The Navajo sandstone in Zion National Park, the huge white cliffs, the same grains are believed to have been eroded and washed all the way from the Appalachians right across North America. These sediments travel from large reserves and stretch to a lower geographical position.
- Rapidly buried plants and animals. We find fossils of fragile creatures that would require a near instant burial such as plants, bees, bats, fish -- that haven’t finished having their meal of another fish also buried and fossilized, ichthyosaurs -- birthing to babies and they’re fossilized, and delicately preserved jellyfish. These things are found in mass, yet literally necessitate an instant burial.
- Rapidly deposited sediment layers across the continents. There are universal layers of sediment such as the redwood limestone layer. In that layer are many fossils. It is most obvious at the Grand Canyon. Yet that same limestone layer is found at the same place over in Pennsylvania, England, the Himalayas, etc. The chalk beds are another example. The Cliffs of David, Europe, the Middle East, Caslick Stan, Texas, the mid-Western United States, Western Australia, etc. The coal beds of Pennsylvania and West Virginia are also found in England and Europe right across the Ural Mountains. So wherever minerals are concentrated, they form identical layers in the expected place. The order of the layers for instance, doesn’t change if a layer is missing or added.
- Rapid or no erosion between sediment layers. For instance, in the Coconino sandstone in the Hermit shale there is a knife-edge, flat, featureless boundary between those two rock layers for miles through the grand canyon, yet the evolutionary geologists would have you believe they are separated by ten million years missing at that boundary. What would have happened during ten million years of weathering and erosion? You’d get a topography and not a flat featureless boundary. At the bottom of the Grand Canyon, the tapeats sandstone sits on the pre-flood rocks and we have evidence of huge erosion there. With boulders being picked up from the underlying rock layers indicating rapid erosion. There are many examples of this kind of rapid forming and erosion happening in both Washington (Best seen at Mt. Everest) and New Mexico.
DNA / GENETICS
It is first important to recognize, geneticists have proven that genomes rarely can add new information. There are 60 to 70 point mutations per generation on average. Point mutations are mutations through the process of DNA/RNA replication. Of those, 0.002% of them are beneficial to the organism. An even lower percentage of these “beneficial” mutations are agreed to have added new information. In order for a DNA strand to add new information, it must, theoretically, have a genome duplicate in some way and not undergo deletion. Then, it must recover the original strand in some capacity. Based on this common knowledge and an extrapolation of the number of average generations through time, it can be estimated that it would take hundreds of billions of years to evolve an animal to become a distinguishably different animal (what would be seen as a change in family in taxonomy).
“No human geneticist doubts man is degenerating.”
~ Dr. Kondrashov (Personal Communication)
“We’re inferior to cavemen, our fitness is declining at 1-3% per generation.”
~ Dr. Crow (Science)
“We’re degenerating at 1-5% per generation.”
“In terms of theory, and of actual biological data, they agree that biological systems should go down - not up. Almost none of those [mutations] are beneficial, think about typographical errors, you always lose information with basically zero benefit. Most mutations are deleterious, but most of them are only slightly deleterious. Slightly deleterious mutations are deadly because mother nature can’t see them and natural selection can’t filter them out so they accumulate like rust on a car.”
~ Dr. Sanford (S & F Podcast)
This proves evolution doesn't have solid footing, and the Darwinian mechanism is fallacious, therefore the theory of 4.5 billion years fails. This becomes more relevant when examining eras such as the “cambrian explosion”. Marriam-Webster defines it “the unparalleled emergence of organisms between 541 million and about 530 million years ago at the beginning of the Cambrian Period.” The issue appears when examining that paleontology has put forth a 1 billion - 10 million year time span for animals to evolve from the Proterozoic layer to the Cambrian layer and there are millions of species that appear in the Cambrian layer that have no obvious ancestral connection to the animals below it.[7
There are also other complications to the time scale including, but not limited to fossilized trees called polystrate fossils that go through multiple sedimentary layers dug-out by archaeologists (polystrates have been found to have formed in weeks), rock compounds as well as fossils have less density and are larger, the higher they are in the sediment formation, and many dinosaur fossils are found with bone marrow and blood cells indicating a recent burial. This all builds a strong case that all these species were in fact alive at the near same time with no reason for billions of years.[9
"There are 1 over 10 to the 77th power [variations of a genome]. If every organism in the history of the planet is estimated ten to the fortieth organisms. Ten to the fortieth possible mutations against a search space ten to the seventy seventh strong. You can search one ten trillion trillion trillionth of the possible combinations. You are more likely to fail to find one of the functional combinations even considering every possible organism that ever existed on Earth."
A QUICK REBUTTAL
I commend my opponent for doing good research into the arguments against creation. However, this argument is not a knockout blow. I actually agree with all but the first premise of my opponent's opening argument. The reason I’d argue the Universe can be “younger than the time it takes for light to reach us” is because it is in the creation framework that God created all things in their mature form. This includes creating adult humans instead of two adolescents, plants to produce fruit, animals to coexist with microorganisms and bacteria in their bodies, and life to reproduce. I will admit that pro has a good argument here, but the idea of creating mature life is very Biblically founded and fits snugly into the “Young-Earth” narrative as well. Remember, we are looking at the evidence to determine the best explanation. The fact that light takes time to travel doesn’t prove that God couldn’t have created it in a mature state and the evidence I have provided today sufficiently overpowers this contention.
“When God finished creating Heaven and Earth and the Universe, God looked at all that he had made and said it was good. God had created the perfect environment for man to reside in, for he had created the earth and all that was in it for man. Therefore, God would have created a mature earth.”
Thank you to everyone reading and considering my position. I am looking forward to Sum1hugme’s rebuttal.